The Republic of India is bordered by Pakistan, People’s Republic of China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and Bay of Bengal. The population of India is approximately 1,432 million people.
In 2022, India’s economy was ranked 5th in the world in gross domestic product (GDP). The country’s economy is dependent on the export of refined petroleum, diamonds, packaged medicaments, jewelry, rice, cotton yarn, synthetic jewelry stones, and pepper.
In 2016, India signed the Paris Climate Agreement, committing to a 33% to 35% reduction in greenhouse gas emission intensity by 2030, compared to 2005 levels.
Power Generation Capabilities
In 2022, 99.57% of the people in India had access to electricity. In 2022, utilities used coal (74.2%), renewable energy (20.5%), natural gas (2.7%), nuclear energy (2.5%), and oil (0.1%) to generate electricity in India. Hydropower, solar, and wind are the dominant types of renewable energy used to generate electricity in India.
Recent renewable energy projects in India include:
- 2,140 MW Solar + 400 MW Wind + 1,200 MW Energy Storage Project – In August 2023, Austrian company, ANDRITZ commissioned a solar, wind, and hydroelectric pumped storage project in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2024.
- 1,200 MW Solar Project – Indian joint-venture company, Bundelkhand Saur Urja Ltd. (BSUL) is continuing work on the Jalaun Solar Park in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. . The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2024.
- 1,190 MW Solar Project – State-owned company Coal India is continuing work on a solar project in the state of Rajasthan in western India. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2024.
- 600 MW Solar + 150 MW Wind Project – In September 2022, Indian renewable energy company, Adani Green commissioned a hybrid solar plus wind project in the state of Rajasthan in western India.
- 421 Solar Project – Indian company, Avaada Energy is continuing work on a solar project in in Eastern India. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year end 2025.
- 327 MW Wind Project – Japanese renewable energy company, SB Energy is continuing work on the Pritam Nagar wind project, which is located in the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. The project is scheduled to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
- 250 MW Solar Project – In May 2022, Indian renewable energy company O2 Power commissioned a solar project in the Jaisalmer district in western India.
- 150 MW Floating Solar Project – Power Grid Corporation of India is continuing work on a massive floating solar project Omkareshwar Dam in central India. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
India is now the most populated country in the world and has experienced significant economic growth. In 1995, only 51.4% of the people of India had access to electricity. In 2022, 99.57% of the people of India have electricity.
Under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India has actively developed new renewable energy projects across the nation. In 1995, only 7.2% of India’s electricity was generated from renewable energy, compared to 20.5% in 2022.
Although India’s standard of living has improved and the nation has invested heavily in renewable energy, greenhouse gas emissions have soared. India has seen greenhouse gas emissions increase by a staggering 335% since 1990
India imports fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) for power generation, heating, and transportation. In 2021, India imported U.S. $93.5 Billion of crude oil, U.S. $28.4 Billion of coal, and U.S. $21.9 Billion of liquified natural gas.
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, prompting the European Union, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand to place economic sanctions on Russian imports and exports. As a result, the crude oil and natural gas prices increased by over 50% from May 2021 to May 2022.
India has achieved remarkable economic growth over the last twenty-five years. However, the dramatic increase in the use of fossil fuels is creating environmental and economic chaos across India.
Our Energy Conundrum
Jack Kerfoot is a scientist, energy expert, and author of the book FUELING AMERICA, An Insider’s Journey and articles for The Hill, one of the largest independent political news sites in the United States. He has been interviewed on over 100 radio, podcast, and television stations from New York City to Los Angeles on numerous energy related topics.