The European country of the Commonwealth of Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Germany. The population of Poland is approximately 40.91 million people.
In 2021, Poland’s economy was ranked 21st in the world in gross domestic product (GDP). The country’s economy is dependent on the export of motor vehicle parts, electric batteries, furniture, video displays, computers, cars, and rolled tobacco.
In 2009, Poland as a member of the European Union (EU) committed to the “Renewable Energy Directive,” which requires each country to use renewable energy for 20% of its total energy needs by 2020 and 27% by 2030.
In 2016, Poland as a member of the EU signed the “Paris Climate Agreement”. The EU committed to a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emission by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.
Power Generation Capabilities
In 2021, 100% of the people in Poland had access to electricity. In 2022, utilities used coal (41.8%), oil (33.8%), natural gas (15.0%), and renewable energy (9.4%), to generate electricity in Poland. Wind, solar, and biomass are the dominant types of renewable energy used to generate electricity in Poland.
Recent renewable energy projects in Poland include:
- 1,200 MW Offshore Wind Project – In June 2023, Canadian company, Northland Power and Polish company PKN Orlen commenced construction on the Baltic Power offshore wind project and the Choczewo substation, where the wind farm will connect to the grid. The offshore wind project, located approximately 15 miles off the coast of Poland is forecast to be commissioned in 2025.
- 200 MW Hybrid Energy Storage Project – Poland’s state-owned utility, Polska Grupa Energetyczna is continuing work on a battery storage facility, which will be connected with the existing 716 MW Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Power Station in northern Poland.
- 123 MW Solar Project – German engineering company, ib vogt GmbH is continuing work on a solar project at a site approximately 115 miles southeast the nation’s capital, Warsaw. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
- 102 Wind Projects – German renewable energy company WPG is continuing work on four separate wind projects in western Poland. All the projects are scheduled to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
- 70 MW Solar Project – In November 2021, Polish energy company ZE PAK commissioned a solar project at a site approximately 100 miles west of Warsaw.
- 60 MW Solar Project – In July 2023, Norwegian energy company, Equinor commissioned the Zagórzyca solar project at a site approximately 200 miles northwest of Warsaw.
- 36 MW Solar Project – Norwegian company Statkraft and Danish company Better Energy are continuing work on a solar project at a site approximately 300 miles northwest of Warsaw. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
- 30 MW Waste-To-Energy Project – South Korean engineering company, POSCO is continuing work on a waste-to-energy project in Warsaw. The project will process approximately 725 tons of waste per day. The project is scheduled to be commissioned in 2024.
- 12 MW Waste-To-Energy Project – Polish company, Dobra Energia is continuing work on a waste-to-energy project at a site approximately 125 miles north of Warsaw. The project will process approximately 300 tons of waste per day. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
Poland imports the majority of the nation’s fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) for power generation, heating, and transportation. In 2021, Poland imported U.S. $9.94 Billion of crude oil.
In 2022, Poland used fossil fuels to generate 78.9% of the nation’s electricity. In 2021, Russia exported 75% and 55% of Poland’s coal and natural gas, respectively.
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, prompting the European Union, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand to place economic sanctions on Russian imports and exports. As a result, the crude oil and natural gas prices increased by over 50% from May 2021 to May 2022.
On 27 April 2022, Russian energy company, Gazprom halted natural gas exports to Poland for refusing to pay in the official Russian currency, rouble.
Poland has significant undeveloped renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, onshore wind, solar, biomass, and hydropower. Poland is continuing to accelerate the development of reliable renewable energy projects to ensure the nation’s energy security.
Website – “Our Energy Conundrum”
Jack Kerfoot is a scientist, energy expert, and author of the book FUELING AMERICA, An Insider’s Journey and articles for The Hill, one of the largest independent political news sites in the United States. He has been interviewed on over 100 radio, podcast, and television stations from New York City to Los Angeles on a diverse range of energy issues.