The Republic of Turkey is bordered by the Black Sea, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Syria, Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Greece, and Bulgaria. The population of Turkey is approximately 86.87 million people.
In 2022, Turkey’s economy was ranked 17th in the world in gross domestic product (GDP). The country’s economy is dependent on the export of cars, jewelry, refined petroleum. motor vehicle parts, delivery trucks, raw iron bars, hand-woven rugs, wheat flour, marble, travertine, alabaster, and iron radiators.
In 2016, Turkey signed the Paris Climate Agreement, committing to a 21% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, compared to a business-as-usual scenario.
Power Generation Capabilities
In 2020, 100% of the people in Turkey had access to electricity. In 2021, power companies used renewable energy (35.3%), natural gas (33.3%), coal (30.8%%), and oil (0.6%) to generate electricity in Turkey. Hydropower, wind, and solar are the primary types of renewable energy used to generate electricity in Turkey.
Recent renewable energy projects in Turkey include:
- 1,350 MW Solar Project – In April 2023, Turkish power company, Kalyon Energy commissioned the Konya Karapınar solar project at a site approximately 125 miles south-southwest of the nation’s capital, Ankara.
- 744 MW Energy Storage Projects – The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) the licensing for 12 battery energy storage systems (BEES) for approved utility scale wind and solar projects.
- 150 MW Solar + 53 MW Wind Project – In September 2022, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development agreed to finance solar and wind projects in Turkey over the next three years. Turkish renewable energy company, Adnan Polat Enerji Yatırımı will develop each of the renewable energy projects.
- 187 MW Wind Project – In March 2022, German renewable energy company, Nordex commissioned the Istanbul wind project at a site approximately 30 miles northwest of the city of Istanbul.
- 72 MW Wind Project – In February 2021, German-Turkish joint venture, Borusan EnBW Enerji commissioned a wind project at a site approximately 50 miles northwest of Istanbul.
- 53 MW Wind Project – In September 2020, American multinational company GE Renewable Energy commissioned a wind project at a site approximately 275 miles southwest of the nation’s capital, Ankara.
- 26 MW Solar Project – Turkish renewable energy company, Asunim is continuing work on the construction of a solar project that will be connected to the 103.2 MW Bağlar wind project in southeastern Turkey.
- 16 MW Solar Projects – Turkish renewable energy company, Asunim is continuing work on the construction of a solar project that will be connected to the 52.8 MW Yahyalı Eolic wind project in central Turkey.
Turkey imports virtually all its fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) for power generation, heating, and transportation. In 2021, Turkey imported U.S. $10.8 Billion for refined petroleum and U.S. $6.82 Billion for natural gas.
In 2021, Turkey used fossil fuels to generate 64.7 % of the nation’s electricity. In 2021, Turkey imported 41% of its natural gas, 40% of its coal, and 17% of its oil from Russia.
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, prompting the European Union, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand to place economic sanctions on Russian imports and exports. As a result, the crude oil and natural gas prices increased by over 50% from May 2021 to May 2022.
Imports of expensive, fossil fuels is crippling Turkey’s economy. Rising fossil fuel prices, coupled with the government’s fiscal policies have resulted in an inflation rate of over 60% through March 2022.
Turkey has significant, undeveloped renewable energy resources including onshore wind, offshore wind, solar, hydropower, and biomass. Turkey is now expediting renewable projects to offset volatile fossil fuel prices.
Website – “Our Energy Conundrum”
Jack Kerfoot is a scientist, energy expert, and author of the book FUELING AMERICA, An Insider’s Journey and articles for The Hill, one of the largest independent political news sites in the United States. He has been interviewed on over 100 radio, podcast, and television stations from New York City to Los Angeles on a diverse range of energy issues.
 Gross Domestic Product By Country 2022 – Worldometer
 The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) – Turkey
 Carbon Brief “Paris 2015: Tracking Country Climate Pledges”
 World Bank, “Access To Electricity (% Population) – Turkey
 Our World In Data, Turkey: Energy Country Profile by Hanna Ritchie and Max Roser
 The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) – Turkey Imports
 The World Bank in Turkey