The South Asian country of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is bordered by India, Afghanistan, Iran, People’s Republic of China, and the Arabian Sea. The population of Pakistan is approximately 232.68 million people.
In 2022, Pakistan’s economy was ranked 40th in gross domestic product (GDP) in the world. The country’s economy is dependent on the export of house linens, rice, men’s suits, women’s suits, knit sweaters, and cotton.
In 2016, Pakistan signed the Paris Climate Agreement, committing to “combat climate change.” Pakistan is one of the few signers of the Paris Climate Agreement not to set specific greenhouse gas reduction targets.
In 2019, the government of Pakistan established the Alternate Renewable Energy Policy which was meant to increase the share of renewable energy in the national power grid from 5% to 20% in 2025 and to 30% in 2030.
Power Generation Capabilities
In 2020, 75.4 % of the people in Pakistan had access to electricity. In 2021, state utility, Pakistan Electric Power Company used natural gas (36.9%), renewable energy (29.7%), coal (11.5%), oil (11.3%), and nuclear energy (10.6%) to generate electricity in the nation. Hydropower is the dominant type of renewable energy used to generate electricity in Pakistan.
Recent renewable energy projects in Pakistan include:
- 700 MW Hydropower Project – Republic of China engineering firm, China Gezhouba Group Company is continuing work on a hydropower project on the Jhelum River, approximately 25 miles east of the nation’s capital, Islamabad. The project is forecast to be commissioned in 2026.
- 600 MW Solar Tender – In April 2023, Pakistan’s Alternative Energy Development Board launched a photovoltaic solar tender for projects in the Punjab province. All tender bids must be submitted by May 8, 2023.
- 410 MW Wind Projects – In December 2021, Spanish-German company, Siemens Gamesa commissioned eight new wind projects in the southern region of the country.
- 100 MW Solar Project – In May 2022, Zhenfa Pakistan New Energy Company commissioned a solar project at a site approximately 200 miles southwest of Islamabad.
- 50 MW Solar Project – In May 2022, New Zealand power company, Meridian Energy commissioned a solar project at a site approximately 500 miles southwest of Islamabad.
- 50 MW Solar Project – In May 2022, Norwegian renewable energy company, HND Energy commissioned a solar project at a site approximately 500 miles southwest of Islamabad.
- 50 MW Solar Project – In May 2022, Norwegian renewable energy company, Helios Power commissioned a solar project at a site approximately 500 miles southwest of Islamabad.
Pakistan imports fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) for power generation, heating, and transportation. In 2020, Pakistan spent U.S. $6.58 Billion for imported refined petroleum, U.S. $6.41 Billion for imported natural gas, and U.S. $3.53 Billion for imported crude oil.
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, prompting the European Union, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand to place economic sanctions on Russian imports and exports. As a result, the crude oil and natural gas prices increased by over 50% from May 2021 to May 2022.
Pakistan is suffering from sky-rocketing inflation due to currency devaluation and fossil fuel imports. Pakistan’s inflation rate increased to 35.4% in March 2023 from 31.5% in the previous month.
Pakistan has significant undeveloped renewable energy resources, including hydropower, onshore wind, offshore wind, solar, and biomass. Pakistan is accelerating renewable energy development to reduce expensive fossil fuel prices.
Website – “Our Energy Conundrum”
Jack Kerfoot is a scientist, energy expert, and author of the book FUELING AMERICA, An Insider’s Journey and articles for The Hill, one of the largest independent political news sites in the United States. He has been interviewed on over 100 radio, podcasts, and television stations from New York City to Los Angeles on numerous energy related topics.
 Gross Domestic Product By Country 2022 – Worldometer
 Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) – Pakistan
 Carbon Brief “Paris 2015: Tracking Country Climate Pledges”
 World Bank, Access To Electricity (% Population) – Pakistan
 Our World In Data, Pakistan: Energy Country Profile by Hanna Ritchie and Max Roser
 The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) – Pakistan
 Trading Economics, “Pakistan Inflation Rate,” November 2022 Data