In 2021, Romania’s economy was ranked 48th in the world in gross domestic product (GDP). The country’s economy is dependent on the export of motor vehicle parts, cars, insulated wire, electrical control boards, rubber tires, sheep, goats, and sunflower seeds.
In 2009, Romania as a member of the European Union (EU) committed to the “Renewable Energy Directive,” which requires each country to use renewable energy for 20% of its total energy needs by 2020 and 27% by 2030.
In 2016, Romania as a member of the EU signed the “Paris Climate Agreement”. The EU committed to a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emission by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.
In 2022, the Romanian government announced plans to replace all coal-fired power plants with zero-carbon power plants (renewable and nuclear energy) by 2032.
Power Generation Capabilities
In 2021, utilities used renewable energy (44.0%), nuclear energy (19.2%), coal (18.4%), natural gas (17.2 %), and oil (1.2 %) to generate electricity in Romania. Hydropower and wind were the primary types of renewable energy used to generate electricity in Romania.
Recent renewable energy projects in Romania include:
- 700 MW Solar Project – Romanian company, S.C. West Power Investment is continuing work on a major solar project at a site approximately 300 miles northwest of the nation’s capital, Bucharest.
- 310 MW Solar Projects – Romanian energy company, Complexul Energetic Oltenia is continuing work on four separate solar projects at coal mining sites across the country. The four projects are forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2025. plant.
- 250 MW Wind Projects – Swiss renewable energy company, Axpo is continuing work to build two onshore wind projects in Romania. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2023.
- 153 MW Solar Project – Israeli power company, Econergy Renewable Energy is continuing work on the Portland Trust Ratesti Solar PV project at a site approximately 75 miles northwest of Bucharest. The project is forecast to be commissioned by year-end 2023.
- 111 MW Solar Project – Romanian energy company, OMV Petrom is continuing work on a solar project at a site approximately 125 miles west of Bucharest. The project is forecast to be commissioned by 2024.
- 102 MW Wind Project – Hungarian company, BIG Energia Holdings is continuing work on a wind project at a site approximately 105 miles northeast of the nation’s capital, Bucharest.
Romania imports fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) for power generation, heating, and transportation. In 2020, Romania spent U.S. $2.18 Billion just for imported crude oil.
In 2021, Romania used fossil fuels to generate 36.8 % of the nation’s electricity. In 2021, Russia provided 37%, 15.5%, and 12% or Romania’s crude oil, natural gas, and coal, respectively to Romania.
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, resulting in the United States, Canada, and the European Union placing embargos on Russian exports. The international price for crude oil and natural gas has increased by over 50% from May 2021 to May 2022.
On 2 September 2022, Russian energy company, Gazprom announced an indefinite shutdown of the Nord Stream 1 natural gas pipeline. The pipeline shutdown stopped all Russian natural gas exports to Romania.
Romania has significant undeveloped renewable energy resources, including onshore wind, solar, biomass, offshore wind, and hydropower. Romania is now fast-tracking low cost, reliable renewable energy projects to offset the loss of Russian fossil fuel imports.
Website – “Our Energy Conundrum”
Jack Kerfoot is a scientist, energy expert, and author of the book FUELING AMERICA, An Insider’s Journey and articles for The Hill, one of the largest independent political news sites in the United States. He has been interviewed on over 100 radio and television stations from New York City to Los Angeles on numerous energy related topics.
 World Bank, Access To Electricity (% Population) – Romania
 Gross Domestic Product By Country 2021 – Worldometer
 The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) – Romania
 Carbon Brief – “2015: Tracking Country Climate Pledges”
 Our World In Data, Romania: Energy Country Profile by Hanna Ritchie and Max Roser
 The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) – Romania Imports
 “Nord Stream 1: Gazprom Announces Indefinite Shutdown Of Pipeline”, The Guardian on 2 September 2022